Caffeine Withdrawal Symptoms

The good news is that the caffeine withdrawal duration typically lasts for 2 days to about a week.  It starts half a day to about a day after caffeine abstinence and peaks at about 2 days.  Occasional reports slightly longer durations.

How much regular caffeine intake causes withdrawal?  Abstinence from regular consumption of as low as a once a day cup of coffee, or 2 cans of soda has been reported to cause caffeine withdrawal.  The probability of incidence of caffeine withdrawal is reported to be 50% of the population from a recent experimental study of healthy caffeine consumers that have stopped for about a day.  But when minor caffeine withdrawal symptoms are also included, that ratio increases higher.

The table below lists the general caffeine withdrawal symptoms reported from various studies:

struggle for concentration lack of attentiveness
tiredness fatigue, enervation, lethargy, prostration
drowsiness doziness, somnolence, chronic sleepiness
moodiness short temper, touchiness
the blues funk, doldrums
uneasiness tension, anxiety
trouble with alertness degradation of perceptiveness

The official word from the ICD-10 of the World Health Organization and the DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association is that caffeine withdrawal is likely to cause “clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning”.

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Coffee, Caffeine & Fitness

One look at a line at the local Starbucks in the morning and you don’t need to be convinced of the huge amount of coffee consumption in the U.S. The National Coffee Association found in 2000 that 54% of the U.S. adult population drinks coffee daily. Guess there’s nothing like the first double espresso in the morning to clear the cobwebs from our heads so we can face the day.

But what are the effects relating to fitness? If that grande-no-foam-double-whipped-extra-shot-no-fat latte gives us the get-up-and-go to start our day at work, will it do the same if we’re headed to the gym?

Physiological Effects

The main ingredient in coffee that gives us that jolt is caffeine, a central nervous system stimulant. Caffeine is found naturally in coffee beans, tea leaves, and chocolate, and is a popular added ingredient in carbonated beverages and some over-the-counter medications such as cold remedies, diuretics, aspirin, and weight control aids. It is estimated that in the U.S., 75% of caffeine intake comes from coffee.

Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system by blocking adenosine, a neurotransmitter that normally causes a calming effect in the body. The resulting neural stimulation due to this blockage causes the adrenal glands to release adrenaline, the “fight or flight” hormone. Your heart rate increases, your pupils dilate, your muscles tighten up, and glucose is released into your blood stream for extra energy. Voila… you now have the caffeine buzz.

But wait…we’re not done yet. Caffeine also increases dopamine. Dopamine activates the pleasure in parts of the brain. It has been suspected that this also contributes to caffeine addiction.

Physiologically, caffeine makes us you feel alert, pumps adrenaline to give you energy and changes dopamine production to make you feel good. Another espresso, anyone?

Ergogenic Effects of Caffeine to Performance

In addition to various psychological and physiological benefits, numerous studies have documented caffeine’s ergogenic effect on athletic performance, particularly in regard to endurance. Studies show that caffeine ingestion prior to exercising extended endurance in moderately strenuous aerobic activity. Other studies researching caffeine consumption on elite distance runners and distance swimmers show increased performance times following caffeine consumption.

Despite effects on endurance, caffeine produced no effect on maximal muscular force in a study measuring voluntary and electrically stimulated muscle actions. However, the same study did show findings that suggest caffeine has an ergogenic effect on muscle during repetitive, low frequency stimulation.

Caffeine’s positive performance-enhancing effects have been well documented. So much so that the International Olympic Committee placed a ban leading to disqualification for an athlete with urinary limits exceeding 12 mg/mL. Roughly 600 to 800mg of caffeine, or 4 to 7 cups of coffee, consumed over a 30-minute period would be enough to exceed this level and cause disqualification. The National Collegiate Athletic Association has a similar limit, set at 15 mg/mL.

Coffee: A Pre-Workout Drink?

Before you make Starbucks part of your pre-workout warm-up in order to harness the effects of caffeine, be aware that simply downing a grande may not give you similar benefits found in these studies. A recent Canadian study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology compared the effect of coffee and caffeine on run time to exhaustion. A group of nine men took part in five trials. Sixty minutes before each run, the men took one of the following:

  • A placebo
  • Caffeine capsules
  • De-caffeinated coffee with caffeine added
  • Regular coffee

Performance times were up to 10 times longer in subjects using the caffeine capsules, with no differences in times among the other trials. Since the level of caffeine absorption was similar during the caffeine trials, researchers concluded something in the coffee itself that interferes with caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects. This makes sense considering that there are literally hundreds of compounds dissolved when coffee beans are roasted, ground and extracted. Results of this research suggest that if benefits of caffeine on endurance times are desired, caffeine capsules work better than coffee.

Caffeine and Creatine Supplementation

Although caffeine has been shown to increase endurance time, further research shows it may actually blunt the effect of creatine, a popular and well-researched compound known for its consistent ergogenic effects. In a study evaluating the effect of pre-exercise caffeine ingestion on both creatine stores and high-intensity exercise performance, caffeine totally counteracted any effects of creatine supplementation. It was suggested that individuals who creatine load should refrain from caffeine-containing foods and beverages if positive effects are desired.

The Downside of Caffeine

Despite coffee/caffeine’s positive effects on psychological states and performance, there are numerous documented risks that must considered when consuming caffeine, whether for performance-enhancing effects or simply as a part of daily dietary consumption.

Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system and can produce restlessness, headaches, and irritability. Caffeine also elevates your heart rate and blood pressure. Over the long-term as your body gets used to caffeine, it requires higher amounts to get the same effects. Certainly, having your body in a state of hormonal emergency all day long isn’t very healthy.

Caffeine is also a diuretic and causes a loss of fluid, which then leads to a dehydrating effect. This is obviously not conducive to fitness activities such as resistance training, as fluid is needed for the transfer of nutrients to facilitate muscular growth. It is also important when considering the further loss of fluid while exercising in hot environments.

Perhaps the most important long-term problem is the effect of caffeine on sleep. The half-life of caffeine in the body is about 6 hours. If you drink a big cup of coffee with 200 mg of caffeine at 4PM, at 10PM you still have about 100mg in your body. By 4AM, you still have 50mg floating in your system. Even though you may be able to sleep, you may not be able to obtain the restful benefits of deep sleep. What’s worse, the cycle continues as you may use more and more caffeine in hopes of counteracting this deficit.

Caffeinated Conclusions…

Though caffeine has some benefits in relation to exercise performance, risks have been documented. Most problems seem evident with very high consumption. The American Heart Association says that moderate coffee drinking (one or two cups per day) does not seem to be harmful for most people. As with everything else, moderation is the key to healthy caffeine consumption. Further research is needed to clearly determine whether the performance-enhancing benefits of caffeine outweigh the potential risks.

About The Author

Jon Gestl, CSCS, is a Chicago personal trainer and fitness instructor who specializes in helping people get in shape in the privacy and convenience of their home or office. He is a United States National Aerobic Champion silver and bronze medalist and world-ranked sportaerobic competitor and editor of the fitness ezine “Inspired Informed and Inshape.” He can be contacted through his website at

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Is Caffeine Necessary For Weight Loss?

With the explosion on the market of 4hour+energyshots that contain little caffeine, I question the value of caffeine in weight loss products and energy pills in general. One major problem is that there are so many sources of caffeine in the diet, including coffee, chocolate, soda pop (diet and regular) and now just above every dietary supplement. Most pre-workout NO products contain some form of caffeine. Many unscrupulous supplement companies are disguising caffeine as “Methyl Xanthines” or simple “Xanthines” as a way to disguise the use of caffeine in their supplement. Things like “Chocamine” and Chocolate extract are primarily made up of caffeine and its derivatives. Finally herbal extracts like Guarana and certain tea extracts like Mate are used to disguise the caffeine content of dietary supplements. Picture this, you wake up in the morning and have large coffee at your favorite Char bucks. The Venti has 480mg of caffeine on average and this NOT using the espresso beans! So, 480 mg to start your day is a whopping dose of caffeine. Then let’s say you have a diet soda at 10 am and then another 20oz at lunch. That indulgence adds an extra 72mg per serving, so tack on another 144mg to your tally. You decide to hit the gym before your workout and take typical EXPLODE products from every supplement vendor in town. These pre- workout supplements have roughly 300mg per serving and often recommend that you take a double serving before working out, so add on another 600mg. Just an average day in the life of a bodybuilder is looking like over a GRAM of caffeine without even thinking about it (1,224 mg to be exact). Now ,if you add your caffeine based theromogenic on top of it, you could be ingesting another 600-800mg per day (most”stimulant”based thermogenics contain about 200mg of caffeine per serving in one of the forms mentioned above). So the average body builder is consuming 2000mg of caffeine per day! The recommended level that the Mayo Clinic recommends is two 12oz cans of diet soda per day max or about 90mg.

So, what?!? What is the big deal? Isn’t caffeine the most harmless thing that a bodybuilder can take? Caffeine doesn’t have side effects and it can give you a boost when you are down…right? I need that stimulant to get “going”! The cry of the desperate … Is caffeine even good in supplements and exercise? Effects of eight weeks of caffeine supplementations and endurance training on aerobics fitness and body composition. Malek MH, Housh TJ, Coburn JW, Beck TW, Schmidt RJ, Housh DJ, Johnson GO. University of Nebraska -Lincoln “These findings indicated that chronic use of the caffeine-containing supplement in the present study, in conjunction with aerobic training,provided no ergogenic effects as measured by VO(2)peak and TRE, and the supplement was of no benefit for altering body weight or body composition.” So, it is more than possible that caffeine does not add to the ergogenic effects in trained athletes and doesn’t help athletes lose weight. How about this study showing the negative effects on creative supplementation? Caffeine counterattacks the ergogenic action of muscle creative loading.Vandenberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M,, Van Hecke P,Vanstapel F,Hespel P. This study shows the caffeine reversed the benefit of creatine and muscle strength. Creatine showed an increase in muscle torque of 10-23% in the subjects studied. According to conclusion: “The data show that Creatine supplementation elevates muscle PhospoCreatine concentration and markedly improves performance during intense intermittent exercise. This ergogenic effect, however, is completely eliminated by caffeine intake.” So, here we have clear evidence that caffeine eliminates some of the key benefits of creatine supplementation, so why is it in your NO or Creatine Product?

Let’s talk about another big problem with the overuse of caffeine… type ll diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Why would this matter to the body builder? One big reason! Insulin is the second most important nutrient to the bodybuilder for building muscle and anything that blunts its effect isn’t really a good thing. Caffeine has been proven in many scientific studies to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and type ll diabetes by blunting the effect of insulin in the bloodstream. In fact caffeine can be implicated in making diabetics fat! Reduced insulin sensitivity causes the body to release more insulin (hyper-insulinemia) which reduces the uptake of nutrients in the muscle cells (stay away from caffeine you’re your workouts) and potentiates the storage of energy as fat! So, in effect this caffeine over consumption might do WAY more harm than good and increase your chances of becoming obese, reducing your muscles ability to recover and taxing your adrenal system. There are reams of documents on pubmed that show how destructive caffeine is to your ability to metabolize sugar and the reduced effect of insulin in a hyper caffeinated environment. Professional bodybuilders take EXTRA insulin to increase their recovery and size, it is one of the most important nutrient systems that they can use to increase size and recovery. It is second only to anabolic steroids in making the professional bodybuilder ultra big. Why would anyone that wants a better physique take something that blunts the most anabolic hormone in the body next to testosterone? Why take 2,000mg of something that is PROVEN to reduce your recovery and ability to store nutrients? It is insanity, especially when you consider that caffeine has a very dubious effect on its ability to increase weight loss, with very little data showing it to be effective weight loss aid. Actually it seem that caffeine barely has a thermogenic effect and there are FAR better ways of getting a mental lift in the gym (although caffeine is very cheap, running about $8 per kilogram, which is why so many companies put it in their supplements to contrast.Yohimbine is about $1500 per kilogram).

Type ll Insulin resistance caused by caffeine WILL HAMPER YOUR ABILITY TO GAIN MUSCLE! Period! It is proven in multiple studies: “The present study in mice demonstrates that both models of diabetes impair regenerating muscle as well as uninjured muscles. Regenerating fast muscles are weaker, lighter and slower in diabetic compared with nondiabetic mice.” (Vignaud A) Meaning muscles regenerate more slowly in a insulin.

Glucose homeostasis have reduced skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein content.”(-Bradeley, SJ) Insulin resistance is implicated in reduced mitochondria function in the muscle “In conclusion, the current data supports that muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is not an intrinsic defect, but instead a functional defect related to impaired response to insulin.”(Asmann, YW). So, those energy drinks count on the Taurine and Sugar for their performance enhancing effect, not the caffeine. That is if you can trust the Mayo clinic about reduced mitochondrial activity in response to insulin resistance. According to Duke University, caffeine can also substantially raise your blood pressure, which is implicated in a whole host of diseases and complications. Additionally, high blood pressure has been linked to the worsening of metabolic syndrome, which is the body’s resistance to normal insulin function as described above. It seems that caffeine WORSENS the effect of raising blood pressure which causes damage and further reduces gains. What else in high blood pressure implicated in? According to the Mayo Clinic web site: “Excessive pressure on the artery walls can damage your vital organs. The higher your blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to: Damage to your arteries .This can result in hardening and thickening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack or other complications. An enlarged bulging blood vessel (aneurysm) also is possible. Heart failure. To pump blood against the higher pressure in your vessels, your heart muscle thickens. Eventually, the thickened muscle may have a hard time pumping enough blood to meet your body’s needs, which can lead to heart failure. A blocked or ruptured blood vessel in your brain. This can lead to stroke. Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys. This can prevent these organs from functioning normally. Thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes. This can result in vision loss. Metabolic syndrome .This syndrome is a cluster of disorders of your body’s metabolism-including elevated waist circumference, high triglycerides, and low- high density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good,” cholesterol, high blood pressure and high insulin levels. If you have high blood pressure .you’re more likely to have other components of metabolic syndrome. The more components you have, the greater your risk of developing diabetes, heart disease or stroke.

Uncontrolled high blood pressure also may affect your ability to think, remember and learn. Cognitive impairment and dementia are more common in people who have high blood pressure. The average bodybuilder doesn’t need higher blood pressure. In fact heavy lifting has been shown to increase blood pressure up to a whopping 250/180 (he average healthy blood pressure is under 120/80) ,so an unnecessary boost in blood pressure from caffeine. Supplements can certainly use other forms of stimulation to boost the metabolic effect or increase focus and intensity.Yohimine for example has been shown by Pantox Laboratories in California to not raise blood pressure at moderate doses and makes an excellent replacement for caffeine in pre -workout nitric oxide drinks and powders to give the focus boosting effect. It also has a very good thermogenic effect without worsening insulin sensitivity. Also, many stimulant manufactures are using things other than caffeine to provide a boost in energy or even offsetting the dangers of caffeine with natural blood pressure reducing agents like Hawthorn Berry (*Search Hawthorn Berry Stimulants for a list) and natural insulin potentiators like Momordica (*search mormodica stimulants for a list) with their thermogenics.Searching the internet for caffeine free stimulants is a good place to start (*Search “caffeine free stimulants”) looking for such alternatives. These items are useful in eliminating the negative effects of caffeine with all of the positive benefits. They are included in many supplements the do not include caffeine. The problem is that most supplements are either stimulants with caffeine or are simply less affective non -stimulants versions, which do not provide the focus and thermogenic effect of stimulants. Considering the amount of caffeine in dietary sources, the average person consumes enough from their standard diet to add any thermogenic effect to a stimulant based fat burner (caffeine does help increase the effect of other fat burners) without overdoing it on the caffeine. So, if your stimulant and pre-workout Nitric-Oxide supplement contains caffeine, perhaps you should look for alternatives that contain other stimulants like yohimbine.They will give you same boost in the gym without the negatives. If you want a little extra caffeine, have a cup of coffee. Caffeine has also been shown at high doses to increase cholesterol levels (suicide for bodybuilders taking anti-estrogens to boost testosterone or people using anabolic steroids since a reduction in estrogen, even in males can cause altered lipid profiles) without showing much of a weight loss effect. High cholesterol is something that a bodybuilder should take very seriously, since the current class of pro-steroids on the market has a chance to alter lipid profiles greatly.

Caffeine is something that is damaging to the body builder who wants to build the most possible muscle, by reducing the sensitivity of insulin. Insulin is a key hormone in building muscle and recovery and its impairment will certainly hamper growth. Also, caffeine makes bodybuilders more susceptible to the dangers of high blood pressure and altered lipid profiles which can worsen the chances of sudden death when combined with anabolic steroids. Interestingly coffee is somewhat different since it has been discovered that coffee contains chlorogenic acid, which has been shown to increase the effect of insulin and reduce the metabolic syndrome effects of caffeine (studies found that drinking coffee did not have the same negative metabolic insulin reducing effect as standard supplements from Guarana or Caffeine Anhydrous). So, if you must have your “caffeine boost” then take it from coffee!!

Justin can Taylor a workout plan specifically for your fitness level, available time and goals. Contact me today for more detailed information on your body type or tips for building muscle and losing weight.
Or check out my website for fat burning Nutritional supplements and and other fitness products.

Author: Justin O Mills
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Caffeine – The Socially Accepted Killer

Here is another great article from a contributing author Here at caffeine withdrawal .org we hope to provide our readers with some of the best information in regards to caffeine addiction and caffeine withdrawal symptoms.


Caffeine and nicotine are two legal and socially domesticated drugs only because they are less toxic when taken in standard quantities. The negative health effects of nicotine and its addictiveness are common knowledge. So why are we so reluctant to show caffeine in the same dim light?

Caffeine and nicotine

Caffeine is present in many foods and drugs — in coffee, tea, energy and soft drinks, candy bars, and over-the-counter cold remedies and analgesics. It is consumed daily by approximately 80% of the world’s population. Small doses of caffeine increase alertness, but there are serious health risks from consuming large quantities and from the long term use of caffeine.

It’s common knowledge that small doses of caffeine increase alertness, buy why aren’t the negative effects of caffeine common knowledge? Smokers wishing to quit have specific treatment programs and therapeutic drugs available that are often covered by insurance. Warning labels are on every pack of cigarettes. Smoking is now a recognized cause of cancer, lung disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Nicotine dependence causes more death and disability than all other drug disorders combined (Ogawa & Ueki, 2007, p. 267). Where are the warnings labels about the health risks from consuming large quantities and long-term use of caffeine?

Current research on the effects of caffeine

A study on the long-term effects of caffeine with responses from nearly 6000 people found that caffeine intake was positively associated with higher levels of depressed mood, anxiety and stress (Rogers, Heatherly, & Mullings, 2006).

Recent evidence suggests that little or no acute benefit is gained from regular caffeine consumption because the withdrawal of caffeine, for example overnight, lowers mood and alertness and performance degrades, and while consumption of more caffeine reverses these effects, it does not boost functioning to above normal levels. Caffeine increases anxiety, especially in susceptible individuals (Rogers, 2007).

A recent study that examined the relationship between coffee and the risk of heart attack incorporated a genetic polymorphism associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease (Cornelis & El-Sohemy, 2007). According to this journal article, diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine appears to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. A diet high in caffeine increases calcium excretion in the urine, a contributor to osteoporosis (Wrotny, 2005). Recent studies have shown that a diet high in caffeine, low in antioxidants and high in red meat may contribute to an increased risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis (Oliver & Silman, 2006).

Effects of caffeine

While teaching a graduate course on Human Behavior in the Social Environment, a seasoned social worker who has worked with adolescents for over twenty-five years instructed her class of future counselors, that in counseling adolescents she has found that many overt behaviors disappear by simply eliminating the teenager’s caffeine consumption.

Caffeine can produce a clinical dependent syndrome. Symptoms include but are not limited to feelings of euphoria, talkativeness and hyperactivity, feelings of versatility, anxiety and sleep disturbances. In one case report, consumption of 4 or 5 energy drinks a day resulted in interpersonal problems with family and work colleagues, impulsive extravagance, feelings of anxiety and insecurity and dissociative behaviors.

When the energy drink was gradually discontinued, the symptoms completely disappeared and ten years later there has been no recurrence of manic behavior and no intake of the energy drink. In another case, a 40 year-old housewife began taking caffeine to stay awake to visit her hospitalized father three times a week. Within 5 weeks her dose increased to 1,000 milligrams a day of caffeine. She began experiencing feelings of strong anxiety, palpitations, feelings of heat in her cheeks and a rushing of blood to her head, agitation, sleep disturbance and then the inability to perform household chores.

A medical consultation led to a diagnosis of caffeine intoxication and dependence. All negative symptoms disappeared and have not returned in seven years after gradual discontinuance of caffeine (Ogawa & Ueki, 2007). Caffeine can produce a clinical dependence syndrome similar to other psychoactive substances and has a potential for abuse.

Unfortunately children and adolescents receive insufficient information on caffeine so there is a tendency to consume large quantities. In the USA, the permissible limit of caffeine is 200 mg per liter. Energy drinks contain caffeine at levels above the FDA limit for sodas (65 milligrams per 12 ounces) a fact not disclosed on most labels. The caffeine in energy drinks tested at the University of Florida ranged from 33 milligrams to 141 milligrams in a 16-ounce Sobe No Fear. They also found more than the recommended amount in Starbucks’ Doubleshot, with 105 milligrams of caffeine (Popkin et al., 2006).

Caffeine makes the heart beat abnormally fast, constricts the cerebral blood vessels, delays the onset of sleep and reduces the total sleeping time. Caffeine also produces gastrointestinal problems. Caffeine is dangerous in pregnancy because it crosses the placenta. The main mechanism of action of caffeine in the central nervous system is antagonism at the level of adenosine receptors. Important secondary effects also occur on many classes of neurotransmitters, including dopamine (Garrett & Griffiths, 1997). Caffeine increases blood pressure, and raised blood pressure in middle age increases risk of cognitive impairment later in life (Stewart, 1999). High caffeine users do not perform as well on verbal reasoning tests according to a study by Dr. Paula Mitchell of Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Excessive caffeine intake overworks the glandular system and can quickly deplete the body of vitamins B, C, magnesium, and several micro nutrients, according to nutritional psychologist Marc David MA (David, 2005).

The health risks from consuming large quantities and from the long term use of caffeine are serious. Currently, not only are there no warning labels on products containing caffeine, but more than the recommended amounts of caffeine are allowed in products that we indulge in frequently. The increased alertness and energy derived from caffeine are not worth the negative health risks. A safe, natural way to increase alertness and energy needs to be substituted for ingesting caffeine. The risks are just too high.

Caffeine causes stress and weight gain

Caffeine aggravates emotional, mental and physiological stress. Caffeine increases the levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine and coritsol (stress hormones) which are responsible for high blood pressure and increased heart rate. Under the influence of these hormones, oxygen to the brain and extremities is reduced and the immune system is inhibited.

Research shows a relationship between habitual caffeine use and excessive levels of the stress hormones. Elevated levels of cortisol appear to cause accumulation of extra fat in the abdomen, as well as an increased appetite and the craving of fat-rich foods. Weight gain in the abdomen also stimulates the release of additional stress hormones.

Caffeine also acts on the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal glands and causes hypoglycemia. This causes decreased circulation to the brain, immediate and continual constriction of blood vessels throughout the body and a pervasive feeling of low blood sugar. The feelings of low blood sugar cause an increase in appetite and food cravings and further interfere with the maintaining a proper body weight.

Alternative energy therapy

In a preliminary study (conducted by of 21 male and female college students between the ages of 19 and 24, researchers found that participants who smelled a specially formulated fragrance experienced an increased perception of energy and in performance scores of recalling historical facts and dates than during exposure to a recognizable food odor or a pleasant neutral odor.

All test subjects were in good health and had normal olfactory ability, as measured by a preliminary medical assessment. Each subject completed a battery of pre and post-trial cognitive, physical and psychological assessments that included; visual acuity, reading ability, sleep and study habits; and rating of feelings of self esteem, self discipline, confidence, etc.

The subjects participated in a one-hour, college freshman level test on U.S. History in a timed, “final exam” setting. The test was conducted after a 2-hour “cramming” study period. A monetary award of $25 was offered to participants that scored 90% and above. During all phases of the blind study, each participant was given a specially designed finger ring that had been infused with one of the particular scents. The subjects were instructed to inhale the scent repeatedly and freely throughout both study testing periods. All subjects underwent three separate U.S. History study periods and tests, one under each odor condition over an eight-day period.

Research findings

The findings showed that the special formulation most effected the participant’s performance when recall of exact dates and associated names was required. Remembering lists of items showed moderate improvement. Recalling contextual facts alone showed modest improvement.

An increased sense of wakefulness was reported as was a feeling of improved concentration. A moderate decrease in overall frustration was also noted. Subjects reported themselves feeling more positive about their overall mental abilities and having an increased motivation to perform even under the vigilance of the testing environment.

The study found the participants more able to ignore “disturbances” created during the testing period under the special odorant condition. Participants also reported feeling more satisfied with their results during the special odorant condition and even happier overall afterward.

These findings suggest that the special scent creates a physiological effect that stimulates the nervous and circulatory systems; a chemical effect that triggers the release of dopamine, endorphins and other neurotransmitters; and a psychological effect that elicits behavioral changes in mood, motivation, desire, attention, satisfaction, etc.

The primary goal of this study was to validate the aromatic blends for use in a commercial product. Further study is planned to refine the delivery mechanism before the products will be introduced to the marketplace.


A demand for increased stimulation, alertness and energy is driving the public to search for commercially available products and protocols. However, caffeine is an additive drug and must be treated as such. Abstinence from or at least moderation in its use, labeling of caffeinated products, expanded drug research and even de-socializing its acceptance must be considered as possible measures in dealing with this toxic health killer.


Cornelis, M. C., & El-Sohemy, A. (2007, February). Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease. Curr Opin Lipidol, 18(1), 13-9.

Crowe, M. J., Leicht, A. S., & Spinks, W. L. (2006). Physiological and cognitive responses to caffeine during repeated, high-intensity exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16, 528-544.

David, M. (2005). The slowdown diet: Eating for pleasure, energy, and weight loss (1st ed.). : Healing Arts Press.

Garrett, B. E., & Griffiths, R. R. (1997). The role of dopamine in the behavioral effects of caffeine in animals and humans. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 57, pp. 553-541.

Ogawa, N., & Ueki, H. (2007). Clinical importance of caffeine dependence and abuse. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 61, 263-268.

Oliver, J. E., & Silman, A. J. (2006, May). Risk factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatoid Arthritis, 35(3), pp. 169-174.

Popkin, B. M., Armstrong, L. E., Bray, G. M., Caballero, B., Frei, B., & Willett, W. C. (2006, March). . A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States, 83(3), pp. 529-542.

Rogers, P. J. (2007). Caffeine, mood and mental performance in everyday life. British Nutrition Foundation, Nutrition bulletin 32(32 (suppl 1)), 84-89.

Rogers, P. J., Heatherly, S. V., & Mullings, E. L. (2006). Licit drug use and depression, anxiety, and stress. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20((suppl.) A27), .

Stewart, R. (1999). Hypertension and cognitive decline. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, pp. 286-7.

Wrotny, C. (2005). Osteoporosis: What women want to know. MEDSURG Nursing, 14(6), pp. 405-415.

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Caffeine Withdrawal, Addiction, and Side Effects

Coffee Addiction — A problem To be Resolved As early because possible

Content material: Caffeine headaches-caffeine anxiety-caffeine effect caffeine dangers

We all possess this pre-conceived idea which just java contains coffee however that is not really the case. Beverages such as cokes and dark chocolate items include caffeine. The warm walk using the morning sunshine seems so attractive and revitalizing.

This is able to keep a person awake as well as assist burn which midnight essential oil over time of terrible need. Coffee will become the issue with regard to sociable gathering. This will help you play games allowing you bump into your co-workers in the actual office which otherwise wouldn’t possess occurred.

It is being regarded as your buddy since it offers assisted you sit up shortly before bedtime and obvious these difficult Math’s papers. Along with the effectiveness it’s possible to consider all of us also occur to realize that java consists of caffeine which is not really best for your health.

Getting java can assist you stay sharp but it is the consequences you ought to be worried about the actual caffeine side effects on your own health. It’s a stimulus that will wonders with regard to your nervous system through worrying the endocrine system within the bloodstream because well as maintaining you alert and conscious when it is.

This particular unnatural method of keeping the body alert takes the toll on the body. The normal way associated with working gets interrupted because of the consumption associated with java or even any other item which consists of great quantity of coffee.

Because caffeine enters our bodies this makes us hooked, caffeine addiction. After knowing the actual caffeine side effects if you all associated with the sudden cease taking coffee, you’ll confront coffee withdrawal symptoms which can be anything from the headache, becoming easily irritated, fatigue, bowel problems, lack of urge for food, insufficient focus to actually forgetfulness.

Actual caffeine withdrawal symptoms can be be extremely harmful leading to belly stomach problems as the coffee can be citrus. This excess chemical p enters your blood channels producing loss of calcium within urine. Caffeine which has been readily used within most of the beverages has brought children obtain addicted to this. The high content material associated with sugar just makes it extremely popular amongst children leading to excess weight.

It’s also the cause of abnormal quick, sluggish or irregular heartbeats. It’s also known with regard to growing blood pressure which leads to constant stress because well as high blood pressure. There are growing chances of cardiovascular disease; pancreas and bladder most cancers, other caffeine withdraw side effects which we all know could be be extremely fatal.

The actual concept to quit coffee should be very strong and should not be interfered with. The caffeine withdraw duration process will be slow as well as gradual. As we all know the actual withdrawal symptoms of coffee is extremely poor. Prevent additional caffeinated products that would simply make matters worse. If however you consume 6 mugs coffee a day reduce it lower. Try in order to have 2 mugs green tea because well as 4 mugs of java together with while you proceed you’ll totally stop till you got rid of caffeine for life.

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